TABLE 1

CWD-inoculated and normal control cynomolgus monkeysb

CMaGenderCWD sourceRouteTotal dose (LD50)Age at euthanization (yr)Observed period (yr postinfection)Wt change (%)cReason for euthanasia
116MWTDi.c.2.0 × 10614.27.3−34Diabeticd
144FWTDi.c.2.0 × 10618.06.6−38Wasting
128MElki.c.3.2 × 10517.113.412Elective
616FElki.c.3.2 × 10515.97.912Seizurese
609FMDi.c.2.5 × 10611.94.0NAAggressionf
135MMDi.c.2.5 × 10616.213.350Elective
119MWTDOral1.6 × 10919.613.319Elective
125MWTDOral1.6 × 1098.8−15Diabeticd
130MElkOral2.5 × 10817.612.447Hemorrhoids
629FElkOral2.5 × 10818.513.110Abdominal pain
121MElkOral2.5 × 10817.410.9−30Diabeticd
270FMDOral2.0 × 1098.8−33Diabeticd
122MMDOral2.0 × 10914.78.121Tremorg
614FMDOral2.0 × 10919.711.839Anorexiah
633FNEBi.c.NA10.98.1Elective
585FNoneNANA9Anemia
228FNoneNANA8.2Foot injury
949FNoneNANA7.9Socialization issues
82-51FNoneNANA17Anorexia
161FNoneNANA5.4Chronic diarrhea
151MNoneNANA10NIA tissue bank
146FNoneNANA10NIA tissue bank
27FNoneNANA23.7NIA tissue bank
  • a Results for monkeys in boldface type were not reported in previous studies.

  • b Abbreviations: M, male; F, female; i.c., intracerebral; WTD, white-tailed deer; MD, mule deer; NEB, normal elk brain; NA, not applicable; NIA, National Institute on Aging; LD50, 50% lethal dose.

  • c Weight change was calculated as the percent weight change from the weight at the initiation of the experiment to the final weight taken following euthanasia. Many CM gained weight during the study, possibly contributing to the high incidence of diabetes.

  • d The diabetic monkeys showed a variety of clinical signs, including lethargy, weakness, and intermittent anorexia.

  • e CM616 experienced 2 seizures over a 3-day period and was euthanized. Tumors were discovered at the base of the brain and in the uterus.

  • f CM609 became aggressive toward staff and was euthanized at 4 years postinfection. No previous behavioral issues had been observed.

  • g CM122 developed muscle tremors and intermittent anorexia at around 8 years postinfection. Clinical hypocalcemia (4 mg/dl) was diagnosed and treated successfully with oral calcium supplementation for 4 months.

  • h CM614 was euthanized due to depression and intermittent anorexia, likely due to a concurrent change in animal care personnel.