TABLE 1

Characteristics of the patients included in this study

Underlying conditionTherapyAge (yr)GenderAnatomical siteJCV DNAYr of PML diagnosisNCRR typePrevious disease-modifying treatmentsPML therapyMiscellaneous
HIV/AIDSHAART, started in 1998NAaNACSF3,975 copies/ml1999I-RNoneNone/HAARTAntiherpetic antivirals for VZVd retinitis and CMVe in urine
Multiple sclerosisNatalizumab, 37 doses, 2002–200546FemaleBrainb>3.5 × 108 copies in 1 section2005II-R2000–2005, beta 1a interferon; 2001–2005, methylprednisolone; 2001–2003, 2004–2005, donepezil; 2003–2004, galantamineNone; diagnosed 14 February 2005, deceased 24 February 2005Continued beta 1a interferon during natalizumab treatment
Rheumatoid arthritisRituximab, 5 courses, May 2006–September 200873FemaleCSF9,138 copies/ml2008II-S2002–2003, etanercept; 2005-NA, adalimumab; before July 2006–30 October 2008, methotrexateMirtazapine, mefloquine, 2nd JCV test 19 March 2009c
Systemic lupus erythematosusMycophenolate mofetilNAFemaleCSF27,150 copies/ml2008II-RNANA
  • a NA, not available.

  • b Paraffin-embedded autopsy sample.

  • c Result, 684 copies/ml.

  • d VZV, varicella-zoster virus.

  • e CMV, cytomegalovirus.