Table 1.

Activities of the E1 and E2 proteins required for ATM DNA damage response, growth suppression, and nuclear focus formation

PhenotypeProtein expresseda
NoneE1 wtE1 DBE1 ATPE1 wt + E2 wtE1 DB + E2 wtE1 ATP + E2 wtE1 wt + E2 IntE1 wt + E2 TAE1 wt + E2 DB
ATM induction+++++++++++++++
Growth suppression++++++++++++++
Formation of E1/E2 DDR foci++++++
  • a wt, wild type. Mutation effects are described as follows: DB and ATP, elimination of specific DNA binding and ATP binding activities, respectively; Int and TA, interference with interaction with the E1 protein and the transcriptional regulation function of E2, respectively. The relative magnitude of each activity is indicated as follows: +++, high; ++, medium; −, none.