TABLE 3

Time to most recent common ancestor estimation of HA gene for low-pathogenic H5 avian influenza A virus introductions from commercial farms (CPFs) and live-bird markets (LBMs) in the United States and Canada (2001 to 2017)a

SourceIntroductionMean TMRCA95% HPDbFirst detected datecDifferenced (no. of days)Avg (days)SD
LowHigh
Commercial farmsCPF-WI-2017(H5N2)2016-10-072016-01-012016-06-182017-03-0214612337
CPF-MB-2010(H5N2)2010-09-062010-11-162010-06-022010-11-2580
CPF-VA-2007(H5N1)2007-02-192007-06-102006-10-092007-07-11142
Live-bird marketsLBM-NY-2007(H5N2)2007-07-242007-10-182007-04-022007-10-3097231137
LBM-PA-2007(H5N2)2007-06-232007-09-232007-03-142007-11-09138
LBM-NY-2006(H5N2)2006-02-122006-06-172005-10-092006-10-23253
LBM-NJ-2006(H5N2)a2005-09-262006-01-182005-05-172006-05-09225
LBM-NJ-2006(H5N2)b2006-01-092006-06-222005-07-102006-07-19191
LBM-NJ-2001(H5N2)2000-03-162001-03-011999-01-232001-07-16487
  • a For each introduction, all isolates with an exact sampling date were included in the analysis. Dates are in the format year-month-day.

  • b HPD, highest posterior density.

  • c First detected date of an introduction was defined as the earliest sampling date among all isolates within this introduction.

  • d Difference between date of first detection and mean time to most recent common ancestor.