TABLE 1

History of SHF outbreaks

Yr of outbreakLocation of outbreakNonhuman primates affected (species)Basis of SHF diagnosisIsolateReference(s)
1964Institute of Experimental Pathology and Therapy, Sukhumi, Georgia, Soviet UnionAssam macaques,a rhesus monkeys,b southern pig-tailed macaques,c stump-tailed macaquesdClinical presentation, serology, virus isolation, exptl reproductionSukhumi-64 (destroyed?)13, 30, 31
1964NIH Primate Quarantine Unit, Bethesda, MDRhesus monkeysClinical presentation, serology, virus isolation, exptl reproductionNIH LVR42-0/M6941,g NIH LVR543/654 (destroyed), LVR M8930 (destroyed)4, 5, 18, 32
1965National Center for Primate Biology, Davis, CA?Retrospective diagnosis based on clinical presentationNone8
1966-1967Shamrock Farm Ltd., Small Dole, West Sussex, United KingdomCrab-eating macaques,e rhesus monkeysClinical presentationNone10, 33
1967Institute of Experimental Pathology and Therapy, Sukhumi, Georgia, Soviet UnionRhesus monkeysClinical presentationNone15, 34
1967National Center for Primate Biology, Davis, CARhesus monkeysSerology, exptl reproductionNone8, 10
1968Institute of Experimental Pathology and Therapy, Sukhumi, Georgia, Soviet UnionRhesus monkeysClinical presentationNone15, 34
1968Shamrock Farm Ltd. Small Dole, West Sussex, United KingdomRhesus monkeysClinical presentation, exptl reproductionNone9, 10, 35
1968AustriaRhesus monkeysClinical presentationNone36
1969Shamrock Farm Ltd., Small Dole, West Sussex, United KingdomCrab-eating macaques, rhesus monkeysClinical presentation, serology, virus isolation, exptl reproductionUnnamed isolate (destroyed)9, 10, 33, 37
1970Institute of Experimental Pathology and Therapy, Sukhumi, Georgia, Soviet UnionRhesus monkeysClinical presentationNone15, 34
1972NIH Corbel Facility, Rockville, MDRhesus monkeysClinical presentation, serology, virus isolationP-180 (destroyed), P-248 (destroyed), P-741 (destroyed)12, 14, 38, 39
1974Institute of Experimental Pathology and Therapy, Sukhumi, Georgia, Soviet UnionPatas monkeys,f southern pig-tailed macaquesClinical PresentationNone15, 34, 40
1989Primate Research Institute of New Mexico State University, Alamogordo, NMCrab-eating macaquesClinical presentation, serology, electron microscopy, virus isolationI-621 (destroyed), Ph0080 (destroyed)41, 42
1989Undisclosed facility, Miami, FL???43
1989Hazelton Research Products, Reston, VACrab-eating macaquesClinical presentation, serology, virus isolation4 unnamed isolates (destroyed?)44
1996Hazelton Research Products, Alice, TXCrab-eating macaquesClinical presentation, virus isolation1 unnamed isolate (destroyed?)45