TABLE 1.

Effects of different types of infection on the development of functional CD8 T cells

Type of infectionCharacteristicsCD8 T-cell differentiationReferencesa
AcuteVirus cleared; T cells experience rest from antigenFunctional memory CD8 T cells with long-term T-cell persistence30, 31, 49, 68, 123
LatentPeriodic reactivation; cycles of T-cell rest and restimulationFunctional CD8 T cells often at high frequency with long-term T-cell persistence21, 95
SmolderingOngoing low-level viral replication; T-cell stimulation with infrequent restSome impaired effector functions depending on frequency of TCR stimulation39, 51, 98, 112
Chronic with viremiaPersisting high-level viral replication; continuous TCR stimulation, no restFunctional exhaustion and deletion7, 26, 27, 62, 70, 73, 80, 118
  • a Not an exhaustive list.