TABLE 1.

Coronavirus receptor usage

Virus (abbreviation)GroupReceptoraOther molecules that may be boundReferences
Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)1APN141
Feline coronavirus (FCoV)1APN125
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)1APNSialic acid28, 109
Canine coronavirus (CCoV)1APN125
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63)1ACE245
Murine hepatitis virus (MHV)2CEACAM1aSialic acid31, 100
SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)2ACE2DC-SIGN, DC-SIGNR, LSECtin40, 54, 69, 78
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)2UnknownSialic acid131
Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV)3Heparan sulfateb (Beaudette strain)Sialic acid76, 134
  • a Abbreviations: APN, aminopeptidase N; ACE2, angiotensin 1-converting enzyme 2; CEACAM1a, carcinoembryonic cell adhesion molecule 1a.

  • b It is not known for sure whether heparan sulfate is the receptor.