TABLE 1.

Time course of transient WHV infection

Woodchuck and treatment group (age [yr])No. of wks postinfectioncccDNA (copies/hepatocyte)aRI DNA (copies/hepatocyte)a% Core antigen-positive hepatocytesb% RI DNA-positive hepatocytesb% PCNA-positive hepatocytesc% Intralobular CD3-positive cellsc% Apoptotic hepatocytesd% Ceroid-containing Kupffer cellse
Untreated animals
    wc530 (1)0<0.0040<0.003<0.0040.412,10.971.9
414.5760>95>950.0111.20.220.7
90.0280.4<0.0031.938.40.755.0
130.047<0.002<0.0030.417.20.494.6
160.040.2<0.001<0.0030.13.60.343.0
    wc535 (2)0<0.0040<0.003<0.0040.015.70.721.7
422.31,500>95>95<0.012.10.372.0
915.5760>95>952.666.59.1711.5
130.31210.0030.700.813.62.8510.8
160.41.1<0.001<0.0070.35.10.9011.5
    wc558 (2)0<0.0040.02<0.004<0.008<0.014.20.401.9
521.61,600>95>95<00140.541.6
1035.82,200>95>950.313.11.5327.3
140.03331.20.180.531.43.4821.3
190.0160.2<0.0015<00030.49.20.515.9
    wc559 (1)0<0.0040<0.0028<0.0060.019.41.450.6
527.81,700>95>950.0210.60.582.3
1045.51,500>95>950.0736.32.0011.5
146.232020110.953.21.522.9
190.05110<0.001<0.0020.0315.10.347.1
ETV-treated animals
    wc522 (3)0<0.0040<0.003<0.0030.062.40.333.3
728.11,100>95>950.312.21.012.2
12<0.0040.2<0.004<0.0030.0613.50.809.7
16<0.0040.02<0.001<0.0030.086.30.796.0
    wc531 (3)0<0.0040<0.004<0.0060.0610.11.104.0
411.21,300>95>950.087.70.690.5
90.012<0.004<0.0050.0717.30.434.9
130.020.3<0.003<0.0040.328.30.951.9
160.030.004<0.001<0.0020.18.40.613.9
    wc533 (1)0<0.0040<0.003<0.0040.073.80.582.2
432.52,300>95>95<0.014.50.652.9
913115804.51.830.22.8524.0
139.8151.60.040.49.11.468.0
160.150.3<0.001<0.0021.612.91.288.3
  • a cccDNA and RI DNA copies per hepatocyte were determined by qPCR as described in Materials and Methods.

  • b The percentages of WHV core antigen- and WHV DNA-positive hepatocytes were determined by immunostaining and in situ hybridization, respectively, as described in Materials and Methods.

  • c The percentage of PCNA-positive hepatocytes was determined using a microscope eyepiece grid and scanning ∼100 fields at a magnification of ×400. The percentage of CD3-positive liver cells was determined by scanning between 20 and 50 fields. The number of CD3-positive liver cells is expressed as a ratio per 100 hepatocytes.

  • d Terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assays were performed on formalin-fixed liver sections as described in Materials and Methods.

  • e Ceroid-containing Kupffer cells were detected using PAS-D staining, as described in Materials and Methods, and are expressed as a percentage of total liver cells using a microscope eyepiece grid.