TABLE 1.

Changes in cytokine induction in the supernatant of human and chimpanzee PBMC infected with strains HIVHXB2 and HIVBala

Gene productFold-induction (X4-tropic HIV)Fold-induction (R5-tropic HIV)
HumanChimpanzeeHumanChimpanzee
HIVSEBHIV/SEBHIVSEBHIV/SEBHIVSEBHIV/SEBHIVSEBHIV/SEB
GCSF1.31.62.01.11.30.91.11.21.01.31.81.5
ICAM11.31.71.60.81.20.71.01.01.31.32.11.8
IL-1β2.14.34.62.21.21.72.01.82.32.12.63.1
IL-31.06.34.61.11.31.71.11.21.31.11.31.3
IL-61.32.22.31.01.01.31.21.41.41.21.11.2
IL-71.81.31.41.11.11.11.82.32.31.31.11.3
IL-81.11.41.51.01.01.01.62.22.11.11.11.2
IL-101.41.21.92.21.82.31.61.81.91.01.61.7
IL-111.11.52.11.21.10.91.10.91.11.21.61.6
IL-131.26.37.31.01.11.02.43.23.31.21.71.4
IL-151.11.92.40.91.21.41.11.01.11.41.91.7
IL-171.01.92.51.00.80.71.01.11.21.32.01.9
IP100.92.12.51.71.31.71.11.31.40.61.10.8
MCP22.02.22.61.10.80.71.00.80.81.01.00.9
MIG1.01.42.51.11.10.70.91.01.21.51.61.5
MIP1α2.33.54.10.80.90.62.62.02.51.42.02.2
MIP1δ1.01.92.60.71.00.41.51.41.41.01.61.4
RANTES2.83.94.11.01.11.01.01.11.11.11.81.4
TGFβ10.61.31.41.11.21.31.21.11.21.32.02.0
TNF-α2.52.42.72.02.52.01.72.42.10.92.11.7
TNFβ1.11.31.81.85.64.11.32.32.51.32.42.1
sTNFRII1.71.41.81.50.81.41.22.12.11.01.31.0
PDGF-BB1.11.01.61.71.01.51.11.11.11.62.01.9
TIMP21.20.70.95.40.94.52.01.32.10.81.11.1
CD95L1.72.52.51.51.72.01.82.02.21.31.31.4
IFNα7.43.19.44.43.29.06.22.56.96.93.25.0
TRAIL3.21.54.31.30.91.14.71.96.71.71.62.0
  • a The n-fold induction is calculated using the values obtained from supernatants from mock-infected cultures as the denominator. The cytokine amount in each sample was determined by evaluating the intensity of the antibody signal produced on the membranes with a scanner. Supernatants from two independent donors were evaluated. Cytokines for which a twofold or higher induction was observed in any of the experimental samples are reported. The following cytokines were also screened and their induction was lower than twofold in all the experimental conditions, as follows: eotaxin, eotaxin 2, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, I309, interleukin 1α (IL-1α), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6sR, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-16, MCP1, MCSF, soluble tumor necrosis factor R1 (sTNFRI). The last four cytokines were measured by ELISA in four independent samples, and the number represents the change in induction of the average of the four samples. IFN-β was undetectable in all cultures. The differences in the production of TRAIL (see also Fig. 1c) were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.041 for the HIVHXB2 infection experiment; P < 0.045 and P < 0.01 for the HIVBal infection experiment). The differences in IFN-α production were not statistically significant. Averages ± standard deviations (SD) for values of IFN-α production in the HIVHXB2 experiment were 3.3 ± 3 pg/ml (mock), 10.1 ± 1.8 (SEB); 24 ± 10 (HIV), 30.5 ± 12 (SEB plus HIV) for human PBMC; 3.3 ± 3 pg/ml (mock), 13.9 ± 5 (SEB); 27.3 ± 10.8 (HIV), 38.9 ± 11.8 (SEB plus HIV) for chimpanzee PBMC. Averages ± SD for values of IFN-α production in the HIVBal experiment were 4.4 ± 3 pg/ml (mock), 11 ± 1.4 (SEB); 28.6 ± 10 (HIV), 30.4 ± 6.2 (SEB plus HIV) for human PBMC; 4.3 ± 3 pg/ml (mock), 13.9 ± 5 (SEB); 29.9 ± 7.3 (HIV), 21.3 ± 6.9 (SEB plus HIV) for chimpanzee PBMC. It is possible that the reactivity of human monoclonal antibodies against the chimpanzee cytokines may be lower than against the human cytokines, and this may result in an underestimate of the chimpanzee cytokines, with some of the above chimpanzee cytokines being more abundant than we observed. Additional differences may be detected when chimpanzee reagents become available.