TABLE 2.

Progression of latent BCG infection during advanced SIVmac infection can result in development of SIV-related BCG disease

Infaction group and monkeyFollow-up (mo)aPathology at necropsy
BCG→SIV→BCG
    25914Granulomatous inflammation in spleen and lymph nodes; severe and multifocal or coalescing granulomas with central caseous necrosis; some mineralization at the center of caseous areas
    27617Evidence of diarrhea; weight loss; spleenitis with BCG-related histiocytes infiltrated in white pulps; foci of histiocytes in gut-associated lymph nodes
    27817Weight loss; signs of diarrhea; colonitis with histiocytes and hemorrhage; acid-fast bacili in spleen and colon
    2699Evidence of diarrhea; BCG-related colonitis with hemorrhage; acid-fast bacilli in colon; pleural fibrosis
Simultaneous SIV/BCG
    26315Severe multifocal granulomas in spleen and lymph nodes; pleuralitis and adhesions between right lung, thoracic wall, and pericardium with fibrosis in the adhesions
    2677No apparent lesions associated with BCG infection; no evidence of other opportunistic infections
Chronic SIV→BCG
    33618Alive, no evidence of BCG-related illness or lesions in biopsies
    34918Alive, no evidence of BCG-related illness or lesions in biopsies
Controls
    54528No apparent lesions associated with BCG infection
    54018No apparent lesions associated with BCG infection
    18520No apparent lesions associated with BCG infection
    21328No apparent lesions in biopsies
  • a The duration from the BCG coinfection through necropsy or the end points of studies. Macaques 336 and 349 maintained strong PPD-specific T-cell responses at the end points of the studies. All controls except monkey 213 were sacrificed for necropsy analyses. Monkey 185 was necropsied because it developed fatal adult respiratory distress syndrome-like illness due to a hypersensitivity reaction to BCG 1 day after the second BCG inoculation.