Table 1.

Immunization protocols and protective immunity as judged by PCR, RT-PCR, and ELISA at various times after challenge

ProtocolMonkeyImunizationaPCRbresult after:Result after culture for 1 mo at both 2 and 6 mo by:
PrimingBoosting24 h2 mo6 moRT-PCRcELISAd
11711 env CMV-βgal +++++
1811 env CMV-env-LTR+
89057 env CMV-env-LTR+++++
1495RGCMV-βgal +++++
293081CMV-env-LTR env + gag +
93089CMV-env-LTR env + gag +NDe e
93096CMV-env-LTR env + gag +
93116CMV-βgal RG+++++
  • a Monkeys were primed with NYVAC-env and boosted with naked env DNA (protocol 1) or primed with naked env DNA and boosted with NYVAC-env and gag (protocol 2). In protocol 1, priming was with NYVAC at 0, 1, and 3 months and boosting was with naked DNA at 9 months. In protocol 2, priming was with naked DNA at time zero and boosting was with NYVAC at 6, 7, and 8 months. ND, not determined.

  • b To detect HTLV-1 provirus usinggag and pol primers.

  • c To detect HTLV-1 provirus expression (tax, rex mRNA).

  • d To detect HTLV-1 p19 antigen.

  • e Result only for 2 months after challenge.