Table 1.

Properties of mutant Vmw110 proteins expressed by the viruses used in the study and their effects on ND10 in HEp-2 cells

VirusVmw110 amino acidsPunctate distribution?aND10 disruption?bHAUSP binding?cComments
17+1–775YesYesYesWild type
dl14031–105NoNoNoTaken as null mutant
FXEΔ106–149IncreasedNoYesRING finger deletion
E52X1–594NoNoNo
E58X1–633NoNoNo
A8X1–646NoNoMinimal
D12Δ594–633YesYesMinimal
A78Δ592–646ReducedReducedMinimal
D13Δ634–679NoNoYes
D14Δ680–719NoNoYes
  • a Most Vmw110 proteins exhibit a degree of diffuse staining, which is reduced by the FXE mutation. The D12 and A78 mutations result in proteins which can still colocalize with PML at ND10 at early times of infection, in all cell types tested.

  • b This is a difficult assay as it is variable from cell to cell, with time of infection and in different cell types. Most wild-type-infected cells have lost ND10 by 4 h. At very late times of infection, gross structural changes to the nucleus invalidate this assay, but after extended expression in transfected cells, thedl1403 and FXE alleles have no disruptive effect on ND10 and the FXE protein stably colocalizes with PML. With the exceptions of D12 and A78 (discussed in the text), the other mutations can cause some disturbance to ND10 in HEp-2 cells, but this occurs very much more slowly than with the wild type.

  • c As detected by coimmunoprecipitation. Trace amounts of HAUSP have sometimes been detected in experiments using A8X, D12, and A78, but these are very substantially reduced compared to the wild type.