Term for included response variable | Estimate | SE | Lower CL^{b} | Upper CL^{b} | χ^{2} | DF | P |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Hunting monkey^{c} | |||||||

Intercept | −6.299 | 1.014 | −9.177 | −4.773 | |||

Sex: male | 4.838 | 1.016 | 3.305 | 7.717 | 40.095 | 1 | <0.001 |

Age^{d} | 0.064 | 0.145 | −0.257 | 0.437 | 0.195 | 1 | 0.659 |

Country: DRC | 0.706 | 0.315 | 0.023 | 1.493 | 4.051 | 1 | 0.044 |

Dismembering monkey^{e} | |||||||

Intercept | −2.428 | 0.236 | −2.966 | −2.000 | |||

Sex: male | 2.222 | 0.283 | 1.606 | 2.794 | |||

Age^{d} | 0.170 | 0.201 | −0.238 | 0.595 | |||

Country: DRC | 0.643 | 0.330 | −0.086 | 1.380 | 3.120 | 1 | 0.077 |

Sex and age | −0.663 | 0.218 | −1.094 | −0.233 | 9.031 | 1 | 0.003 |

Preparing monkey^{f} | |||||||

Intercept | 0.395 | 0.228 | −0.070 | 0.905 | |||

Sex: male | −1.849 | 0.249 | −2.450 | −1.347 | |||

Age^{d} | 0.293 | 0.196 | −0.135 | 0.682 | |||

Country: DRC | 2.445 | 0.504 | 1.437 | 3.533 | 14.541 | 1 | <0.001 |

Sex and age | −0.766 | 0.233 | −1.228 | −0.310 | 10.821 | 1 | 0.001 |

Eating monkey^{g} | |||||||

Intercept | 0.465 | 0.244 | −0.051 | 1.010 | |||

Sex: male | 0.668 | 0.219 | 0.241 | 1.122 | |||

Age^{d} | 0.426 | 0.163 | 0.095 | 0.769 | |||

Country: DRC | 2.986 | 0.552 | 1.910 | 4.244 | 16.967 | 1 | <0.001 |

Sex and age | −0.903 | 0.223 | −1.345 | −0.467 | 16.470 | 1 | <0.001 |

Hunting great ape^{h} | |||||||

Intercept | −6.045 | 1.024 | −8.933 | −4.498 | |||

Sex: male | 2.789 | 1.048 | 1.131 | 5.697 | 11.243 | 1 | 0.001 |

Age^{d} | 0.292 | 0.266 | −0.240 | 0.814 | 1.182 | 1 | 0.277 |

Country: DRC | 0.111 | 0.588 | −1.189 | 1.314 | 0.035 | 1 | 0.851 |

Dismembering great ape^{i} | |||||||

Intercept | −4.716 | 0.531 | −5.946 | −3.805 | |||

Sex: male | 2.089 | 0.555 | 1.099 | 3.335 | 15.451 | 1 | <0.001 |

Age^{d} | −0.053 | 0.206 | −0.474 | 0.359 | 0.066 | 1 | 0.797 |

Country: DRC | 0.284 | 0.425 | −0.646 | 1.251 | 0.438 | 1 | 0.508 |

Eating great ape^{j} | |||||||

Intercept | −2.293 | 0.232 | −2.797 | −1.841 | |||

Sex: male | 1.600 | 0.236 | 1.132 | 2.169 | 18.919 | 1 | <0.001 |

Age^{d} | −0.137 | 0.114 | −0.366 | 0.099 | 1.430 | 1 | 0.232 |

Country: DRC | −0.909 | 0.352 | −2.152 | −0.158 | 5.266 | 1 | 0.022 |

↵a Participants' sex, age, and country of residence were included as test predictors, and sampling village was included as random effect. The model including preparing great ape as a response variable was not significantly better than the null model comprising only the random effects (likelihood ratio test: χ

^{2}= 7.974;*P*= 0.093;*n*= 684) and was therefore not considered further. DF, degrees of freedom; DRC, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Significant results are shown in bold.↵b Based on a model without the correlation between random slope and intercept.

↵c The full model was highly significant compared to the null model comprising only the random effects (likelihood ratio test: χ

^{2}= 42.269; DF = 4;*P*< 0.001;*n*= 696) but not significant compared to a reduced model excluding the interaction term between sex and age (likelihood ratio test: χ^{2}= 1.083; DF = 1;*P*= 0.298). Therefore, results from the reduced model excluding the interaction are reported. It explained 64.11% of the variance (conditional*R*^{2}). Intercept of random effects: variance = 0.00; SE = 0.00.↵d Age was z-transformed to a mean of 0 and standard error of 1.

↵e The full model was highly significant compared to the null model comprising only the random effects (likelihood ratio test: χ

^{2}= 30.899; DF = 4;*P*< 0.001;*n*= 702) and significant compared to a reduced model excluding the interaction term between sex and age (likelihood ratio test: χ^{2}= 9.031; DF = 1;*P*= 0.003). Therefore, results from the full model including the interaction are reported. It explained 30.24% of the variance (conditional*R*^{2}). Intercept of random effects: variance = 0.04; SE = 0.20.↵f The full model was highly significant compared to the null model comprising only the random effects (likelihood ratio test: χ

^{2}= 47.620; DF = 4;*P*< 0.001;*n*= 702) and highly significant compared to a reduced model excluding the interaction term between sex and age (likelihood ratio test: χ^{2}= 10.821; DF = 1;*P*= 0.001). Therefore, results from the full model including the interaction are reported. It explained 41.90% of the variance (conditional*R*^{2}). Intercept of random effects: variance = 0.22; SE = 0.47.↵g The full model was highly significant compared to the null model comprising only the random effects (likelihood ratio test: χ

^{2}= 40.332; DF = 4;*P*< 0.001;*n*= 716) and highly significant compared to a reduced model excluding the interaction term between sex and age (likelihood ratio test: χ^{2}= 16.470; DF = 1;*P*< 0.001). Therefore, results from the full model including the interaction are reported. It explained 41.94% of the variance (conditional*R*^{2}). Intercept of random effects: variance = 0.29; SE = 0.54.↵h The full model was significant compared to the null model comprising only the random effects (likelihood ratio test: χ

^{2}= 14.740; DF = 4;*P*= 0.005;*n*= 689), but not significant compared to a reduced model excluding the interaction term between sex and age (likelihood ratio test: χ^{2}= 1.766; DF = 1;*P*= 0.184). Therefore, results from the reduced model excluding the interaction are reported. It explained 39.05% of the variance (conditional*R*^{2}). Intercept of random effects: variance = 0.00; SE = 0.00.↵i The full model was significant compared to the null model comprising only the random effects (likelihood ratio test: χ

^{2}= 16.022; DF = 4;*P*= 0.003;*n*= 690), but not significant compared to a reduced model excluding the interaction term between sex and age (likelihood ratio test: χ^{2}= 0.531; DF = 1;*P*= 0.466). Therefore, results from the reduced model excluding the interaction are reported. It explained 24.48% of the variance (conditional*R*^{2}). Intercept of random effects: variance = 0.00; SE = 0.00.↵j The full model was highly significant compared to the null model comprising only the random effects (likelihood ratio test: χ

^{2}= 30.346; DF = 4;*P*< 0.001;*n*= 714), but not significant compared to a reduced model excluding the interaction term between sex and age (likelihood ratio test: χ^{2}= 0.434; DF = 1;*P*= 0.510). Therefore, results from the reduced model excluding the interaction are reported. It explained 19.42% of the variance (conditional*R*^{2}). Intercept of random effects: variance = 0.11; SE = 0.33.